The introductory articles in this chapter are almost the same as the CPTPs, which in turn are almost identical to those of the WTO-SPS agreement. However, the USMCA adds two new requirements that require contracting parties to “improve, if necessary, the compatibility of health or plant health measures; ” (art.9.3). Although they do not pose a risk per se to the regulation of SPS, they indicate the potential for “chill” if there is no shortage that can be interpreted as scientifically sound to support a new regulation. In the chapter, the preamble reaffirms that “each party has the right to take or maintain sanitary and plant health measures necessary for the protection of human, animal or plant life or human or plant health,” but it weakens it immediately by adding the reservation “provided that these measures are not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter” (s.9.6). Any standard that exceeds the international standard (which would make it de facto in compliance with the SPS chapter and would not be contentious), should be subject to “a risk assessment for human life, (animal or plant or health,” which is not formulated in the CPTPP more than that of the CPTPP: at the end of 2018, the United States, Canada and Mexico signed a new trade agreement (most often referred to by the US-Mexico-Canada acronym (USMCA) centered on the United States for replace the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The new agreement is the first major trade deal negotiated in the shadow of the Trump administration`s unilateral introduction of tariffs to push other countries to accept provisions more favorable to the protectionist economic interests of the United States. Although the agreement has not yet been ratified, it is widely seen as an indication of how the United States will conduct future international trade negotiations. Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labour rules. Coronavirus can also complicate implementation as manufacturers adapt to new guidelines in the midst of a global economic crisis. In 2017, U.S.

corn exports to Mexico surpassed Mexican corn exports to the United States at 11:1 [20]. It is striking, however, that the gradual transition to industrial agriculture in the three countries, which is not in itself due to trade agreements, but which is made possible and accelerated by such market liberalisation rules. In Canada and the United States, the share of the dependent agricultural population increased from 4.26 in 1994 to only 1.9 in 2018 (Canada) and from 2.8 to 1.6 over the same period (United States).