The proposal for a decision by the European Parliament and the Council to France, which authorizes it to negotiate and conclude such an agreement with the United Kingdom under art. 2 al. 1 and 91 of the TFUE, is therefore an appropriate instrument. The legal basis for this proposal is Article 2, paragraphs 1 and 91, of the TFUE. 26 As far as harbinson and the final agreement are concerned, however, they are unbalanced in another direction, the results being considerably positive in terms of the market access dimension. The terms of the negotiations therefore concluded with a convergence of the positions of Canada, China, South Africa and ourselves in the third dimension. It therefore seems reasonable to speculate that the negotiators took the content of the Doha Round for development very seriously. However, despite the general similarities between most developing countries, these dimensions are highly heterogeneous between developing countries. Instead, the “pro-development” position reflected in the final agreement is no different from that of Canada, which appears to miss problems such as replacing customs revenues and losing revenue through preference erosion. The problems faced by poor members therefore appear to be mainly related to declining customs revenues, as many countries depend on these revenues as an important part of the budget and the problem of erosion of tariff preferences linked to multilateral liberalization.

Before we finish and draw the political implications, we therefore examine the determinants of the three political dimensions identified, in order to gain a broader overview of the context of countries` preferences and reservations and the underlying determinants of the positions formulated. Academics, post-doctoral fellows based on UCL, with the help of a high-level university colleague, are invited to apply to organize collaborative workshops for this call of the current UCL/French Embassy cooperation agreement. Table 6 shows that the African group scores 0.62 in terms of liberalization, while its position in the other two dimensions is clearly negative, with values of -1.41 and – 0.67. Contrary to the clearly defined policy of the African Group, cluster 10 – the consensus cluster – has relatively close to zero factor values in all three political directions. At the bottom of the scale is South Africa, us and the Cairns group. The Harbinson factor on the dimension of liberalisation is almost exactly in the middle with a score of .10, which shows that Mr Harbinson`s proposal is consistent with the WTO`s objective of seeking a freer international trading system.